Difference between revisions of "Power"

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== Binomial distribution ==
 
== Binomial distribution ==
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_test Binomial test]
+
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_test Binomial test]. Calculating a '''p-value''' for a two-tailed test is slightly more complicated, since a binomial distribution isn't symmetric if <math>\pi _{0}\neq 0.5</math>.
 
* [https://predictivehacks.com/how-to-get-the-power-of-test-in-hypothesis-testing-with-binomial-distribution/ How To Get The Power Of Test In Hypothesis Testing With Binomial Distribution]
 
* [https://predictivehacks.com/how-to-get-the-power-of-test-in-hypothesis-testing-with-binomial-distribution/ How To Get The Power Of Test In Hypothesis Testing With Binomial Distribution]
 
* [https://www.statology.org/binomial-test-r/ How to Perform a Binomial Test in R]
 
* [https://www.statology.org/binomial-test-r/ How to Perform a Binomial Test in R]

Revision as of 18:35, 2 May 2021

Power analysis/Sample Size determination

Binomial distribution

Power analysis for default Bayesian t-tests

http://daniellakens.blogspot.com/2016/01/power-analysis-for-default-bayesian-t.html

Using simulation for power analysis

Power analysis and sample size calculation for Agriculture

http://r-video-tutorial.blogspot.com/2017/07/power-analysis-and-sample-size.html

Power calculation for proportions (shiny app)

https://juliasilge.shinyapps.io/power-app/

Derive the formula/manual calculation

[math]\displaystyle{ \begin{align} Power & = P_{\mu_1-\mu_2 = \Delta}(\frac{\bar{X}_1 - \bar{X}_2}{\sqrt{\sigma^2/n + \sigma^2/n}} \gt Z_{\alpha /2}) + P_{\mu_1-\mu_2 = \Delta}(\frac{\bar{X}_1 - \bar{X}_2}{\sqrt{\sigma^2/n + \sigma^2/n}} \lt -Z_{\alpha /2}) \\ & \approx P_{\mu_1-\mu_2 = \Delta}(\frac{\bar{X}_1 - \bar{X}_2}{\sqrt{\sigma^2/n + \sigma^2/n}} \gt Z_{\alpha /2}) \\ & = P_{\mu_1-\mu_2 = \Delta}(\frac{\bar{X}_1 - \bar{X}_2 - \Delta}{\sqrt{2 * \sigma^2/n}} \gt Z_{\alpha /2} - \frac{\Delta}{\sqrt{2 * \sigma^2/n}}) \\ & = \Phi(-(Z_{\alpha /2} - \frac{\Delta}{\sqrt{2 * \sigma^2/n}})) \\ & = 1 - \beta =\Phi(Z_\beta) \end{align} }[/math]

Therefore

[math]\displaystyle{ \begin{align} Z_{\beta} &= - Z_{\alpha/2} + \frac{\Delta}{\sqrt{2 * \sigma^2/n}} \\ Z_{\beta} + Z_{\alpha/2} & = \frac{\Delta}{\sqrt{2 * \sigma^2/n}} \\ 2 * (Z_{\beta} + Z_{\alpha/2})^2 * \sigma^2/\Delta^2 & = n \\ n & = 2 * (Z_{\beta} + Z_{\alpha/2})^2 * \sigma^2/\Delta^2 \end{align} }[/math]
# alpha = .05, delta = 200, n = 79.5, sigma=450
1 - pnorm(1.96 - 200*sqrt(79.5)/(sqrt(2)*450)) + pnorm(-1.96 - 200*sqrt(79.5)/(sqrt(2)*450))
# [1] 0.8
pnorm(-1.96 - 200*sqrt(79.5)/(sqrt(2)*450))
# [1] 9.58e-07
1 - pnorm(1.96 - 200*sqrt(79.5)/(sqrt(2)*450)) 
# [1] 0.8

Calculating required sample size in R and SAS

pwr package is used. For two-sided test, the formula for sample size is

[math]\displaystyle{ n_{\mbox{each group}} = \frac{2 * (Z_{\alpha/2} + Z_\beta)^2 * \sigma^2}{\Delta^2} = \frac{2 * (Z_{\alpha/2} + Z_\beta)^2}{d^2} }[/math]

where [math]\displaystyle{ Z_\alpha }[/math] is value of the Normal distribution which cuts off an upper tail probability of [math]\displaystyle{ \alpha }[/math], [math]\displaystyle{ \Delta }[/math] is the difference sought, [math]\displaystyle{ \sigma }[/math] is the presumed standard deviation of the outcome, [math]\displaystyle{ \alpha }[/math] is the type 1 error, [math]\displaystyle{ \beta }[/math] is the type II error and (Cohen's) d is the effect size - difference between the means divided by the pooled standard deviation.

# An example from http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/stuff_for_blog/c13.pdf#page=3
# Method 1.
require(pwr)
pwr.t.test(d=200/450, power=.8, sig.level=.05,
           type="two.sample", alternative="two.sided")
#
#     Two-sample t test power calculation 
#
#              n = 80.4
#              d = 0.444
#      sig.level = 0.05
#          power = 0.8
#    alternative = two.sided
#
# NOTE: n is number in *each* group

# Method 2.
2*(qnorm(.975) + qnorm(.8))^2*450^2/(200^2)
# [1] 79.5
2*(1.96 + .84)^2*450^2 / (200^2)
# [1] 79.4

And stats::power.t.test() function.

power.t.test(n = 79.5, delta = 200, sd = 450, sig.level = .05,
             type ="two.sample", alternative = "two.sided")
#
#     Two-sample t test power calculation 
#
#              n = 79.5
#          delta = 200
#             sd = 450
#      sig.level = 0.05
#          power = 0.795
#    alternative = two.sided
#
# NOTE: n is number in *each* group

R package related to power analysis

CRAN Task View: Design of Experiments

Russ Lenth Java applets

https://homepage.divms.uiowa.edu/~rlenth/Power/index.html

Bootstrap method

The upstrap Crainiceanu & Crainiceanu, Biostatistics 2018

Multiple Testing Case

Optimal Sample Size for Multiple Testing The Case of Gene Expression Microarrays

Unbalanced randomization

Can unbalanced randomization improve power?

Yes, unbalanced randomization can improve power, in some situations