- Launcher and Docks
- For RK launcher, right click the separator to show the menu. From there, click Settings > Behavior tab. Enable the checkbox to start RK launcher with Windows. The version I am using is 0.4 beta.
- Find your Windows license key. ProduKey from NirSoft.
Move to a new computer
How to set up your new computer
How to Migrate Your Windows Installation to a Solid-State Drive
How to Upgrade to a Larger Hard Drive Without Reinstalling Windows
Cheap Windows 10 Keys: Do They Work?
How to install Windows on an external drive
How to Find Official Windows Drivers for Any Device
Libraries in Windows 7
The full path to the hidden Libraries folder is below.
C:\Users\(User-Name)\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Libraries # Or %AppData%\Microsoft\Windows\Libraries
On my Windows 7 machine, the Libraries include
Documents Music Pictures Videos
Note that the Pictures folder in Libraries is not exactly the same as C:\Users\(User-Name)\My Pictures folder. Similarly, the Videos folder in Libraries may not be the same as C:\Users\(User-Name)\My Videos. In fact, each one of folder in Libraries contains more than 1 folder: one is 'My' one and the other is 'Public' one. For example, the Documents folder in Libraries contains My Documents and Public Documents subfolders.
It seems Windows 8 does not have 'Libraries'. On Windows 10, 'Libraries' becomes 'Quick access' and the libraries idea is gone now; for example, the 'Downloads' is actually means the 'Downloads' folder. The 'Quick access' consists of
Desktop Downloads Documents Pictures Music Videos
Testing on <install.sh> shell script. Goal is to use wget to download the file.
- Github: choose 'View Raw' to get the url for the file. The con is the url will be changed whenever the file is updated.
- Google Drive: cannot get the raw file, only the html version.
255 characters for VFAT file system from Windows 95.
Delete files with long filenames
What Does a Windows Folder Icon With Double Blue Arrows Mean?
Administrator vs standard account
Customize the Send To Menu in Windows 10, 8, 7, or Vista. Open the Explorer window and type
Create a new shortcut to the program you want to add to the Send To menu.
Open a command line prompt using administration. Then type powercfg /batteryreport. In my Windows 8 tablet, it will create a report in C:\Windows\system32\battery-report.html.
Read Mac-formatted drive
What’s The Difference Between Bluetooth A2DP And aptX?
Output audio to bluetooth
- control panel
- click on the device (e.g. BA-500)
- click A2DP (Advanced Audio Distribution Profile)
You shall see the bluetooth device is checked now under the Control panel-> Sound box.
Log on automatically on Windows 7 or 8
- Click Start, type netplwiz, and then press Enter.
- In the User Accounts dialog box, click the account you want to automatically log on to.If it is available, clear the Users Must Enter A User Name And Password To Use This Computer check box.
- Click OK.
- In the Automatically Log On dialog box, enter the user’s password twice and click OK.
Automatically Log in
How to Make Your PC Shut Down at Night (But Only When You’re Not Using It)
Manage mobile broadband connection
- Start -> Control panel
- Network -> Network and Sharing Center -> Change advanced sharing settings.
What’s the Difference Between Private and Public Networks in Windows?/if you want your computer to be discoverable or not by other computers. Lots of screenshots are given there.
Show all mapped network drives
Command Prompt in Administrator mode doesn't see mapped drives
Since mapped drives are user-centric, that Admin user context will not have the (same) drives, and you'll have to map them for that user context once the command window is open as Adminsitrator; see https://superuser.com/questions/690287/command-prompt-in-administrator-mode-doesnt-see-mapped-drives
net use Z: \\SuperServer\SuperShare
Network traffic monitor & Resource Monitor
Task manager -> Performance -> Open Resource Monitor -> Network.
See a screenshot from the #3 from the bottom.
GPU usage monitor
How to Add a Static TCP/IP Route to the Windows Routing Table
Convert/Save web pages as ebook format
The ebook device uses e-link. It is friendly to human's eyes. Although these ebook devices are usually small for easy to carry, reading pdf articles are not suitable. However if articles are available online as web pages, we can save these pages and read them on devices.
- For Kindle device, we can use bookmartlet from http://fivefilters.org/. After installing bookmarklet, we can click it and send any webpage to kindle device (we have to enter the Kindle email address and add [email protected] to the approved personal document email list from Amazon Account -> Manage Your Kindle. The saved file is in mobi format and it contains images too. However, pages contains tables may be lost (eg this page, but it may be the website's problem). Note that in order to read the article on my kindle device, I still need to go to http://www.amazon.com website -> Your Account -> Manage Your Kindle -> Click 'Actions' from the corresponding book -> Deliver to my Kindle (select one device). No extra charge over this method. See lifehacker's article.
- For Kobo device, one option is to use dotepub bookmarklet. However, it has a limit on the number of images in an article to save. In fact, the http://filvefilters.org bookmarklet has an option to output in epub format. It will download the epub file immediately. It works perfectly.
Create epub or mobipocket format by using pandoc
- To hide the 'sign in' export PDF right panel, click 'Tools' word on the menu bar.
Convert pdf to ebook format
- pdf4kindle.com - not work well with pdf files from http://magazine.odroid.com/
- Calibre - when I test the pdf files from http://magazine.odroid.com/, the conversion does not recognize the 3-column mode. So the conversed article will mess up.
- k2pdfopt - an article from howtogeek.com. After several tries (command line & GUI), I did not find it particularly useful. The only one case that may be useful to convert an article from multiple-column to a single column.
k2pdfopt xxx.pdf -mode fp -c -col 3
This will generate a new file called <xxx_k2opt.pdf> by converting an article with 3 columns. Note that the new pdf file will have very wide space on two sides.
Trim/Crop pdf using briss
- briss is available for Windows, Mac, Linux and it depends on Java.
- It works great when I use it to crop IRanges package vignette.
java -jar briss-0.9.jar -s [SOURCEFILE] [-d [DESTINATIONFILE]]
Convert PDF to HTML format PdfMasher
- The source code is in Python 3. There is a binary code for Windows (32&64 bit) & Ubuntu 12.04 but not for 14.04.
Sign a PDF
Web to pdf
- Make any web page Print Friendly & PDF (tex from this DO NOT work)
- https://www.web2pdfconvert.com/ (tex from this works but too narrow)
Convert Kindle azw to other format
Note: it does not work:(
RSS and Kindle
Install IIS on Windows 7/Vista
Burn Windows 7/10 ISO to USB in Ubuntu using WoeUSB
- Make A Bootable Windows 10 USB Install Stick On Linux With WoeUSB
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8 sudo apt update sudo apt install woeusb
WoeUSB also supports a command line operation.
- dd command and Etcher can write the iso file to a USB stick, but the stick cannot boot.
- UNetbootin cannot find the USB stick.
- WoeUSB works. Note: umount USB drive before hitting the 'Install' button.
Boot from the network with PXE
Create a bootable USB
- Launching Hiren's BootCD from USB Flash Drive.
- Uninstall Ubuntu in Windows dual boot environment.
- Create installation media for Windows 8.1 an instruction by Microsoft.com.
- How to Create a Bootable USB Drive from Your Windows CD
- How to Create a Bootable USB From an ISO: 6 Useful Tools 2021
Run Windows 10 From a USB Drive
Dual boot of Windows and Linux
- How to Dual Boot Linux on Your PC
- How to Replace One Linux Distribution With Another From Dual Boot (Keeping Home Partition)
- Root partition size: 20-30 GB
- Home partition size: 30 GB or depending on your situation
- Swap: 2GB or the same as your RAM
Windows Update Deleted Linux! What to Do and How to Prevent It
Best solution: Install Linux Operating Systems on Separate Hard Drives.
- Revo uninstaller
Uninstall a Linux from dual-boot
Install open-source software
Install ubuntu on my 64GB USB drive
$ df -h Filesystem Size Mounted on /cow 3.9G / udev 3.9G /dev tmpfs 1.6G /run /dev/sdb1 61G /cdrom /dev/loop0 672M /rofs tmpfs 3.9G /tmp none 5.0M /run lock none 3.9G /run/shm
If we check the drive's partition table using gpart, we will see the drive has only a fat32 partition.
Internet connection sharing (ICS)
Suppose a laptop can connect to the internt through wireless. We want to use its ethernet port to share internet on another device (e.g. raspberry pi where the device has only ethernet port).
- control panel - network & sharing center
- manage network connection
- right click wireless network connection and select property
- click 'sharing' tab and check 'Allow other network users to connect through this computer's internet connection'. For the home network connection, select 'Local Area Connection'.
- reboot raspberry pi.
When my host machine is xubuntu, the guest machine (raspberry pi) shows eth0 has ip 10.42.0.37 and the host machine shows
[email protected]:~$ ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:22:19:ea:10:3d inet addr:10.42.0.1 Bcast:10.42.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::222:19ff:feea:103d/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:284 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:383 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:19038 (19.0 KB) TX bytes:85493 (85.4 KB) Interrupt:43 Base address:0x2000 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:972 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:972 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:90336 (90.3 KB) TX bytes:90336 (90.3 KB) wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:17:c4:62:a0:35 inet addr:192.168.1.153 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: 2601:a:3780:6a:217:c4ff:fe62:a035/64 Scope:Global inet6 addr: fe80::217:c4ff:fe62:a035/64 Scope:Link inet6 addr: 2601:a:3780:6a:a4b9:d314:4790:a0a1/64 Scope:Global UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:6300 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:4812 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:6042745 (6.0 MB) TX bytes:659980 (659.9 KB) [email protected]:~$
How to use your Windows 10 PC as a mobile hotspot
Secure web access from anywhere using secure tunnel
Meltdown and Spectre CPU flaws
- Chrome OS should update to v63
- macOS High Sierra 13.10.2
- Linux: zdnet & cyberciti & ubuntu
- Raspberry Pi: Why Raspberry Pi isn't vulnerable to spectre or meltdown
What every Browser knows about you
Security and privacy apps
How to Secure Your Accounts With 2FA
How to Opt Out of Personalized Ads from Google
$200, one-month free trial
$300, 2 months free trial
12 months free trial
Access cloud storage
It has a plan of $11.99/year for unlimited storage for photos and 5GB for videos and files or $59.99/year for unlimited everything. My plan (free) is unlimited storage for photos from fire device and 5GB for photos, videos, and files. Files shown in amazon.com/clouddrive are not the same as amazon.com -> digital content -> manage your content and devices -> your content -> Docs.
Click View -> Show Document Outline. This will bring a TOC on the left hand side.
- To enter the presentation: In the top right click 'Presentation' button. Or Menu > VIew > Presentation. From the current slide, the presentation will become full screen.
- To exit the presentaiton: Esc key.
Fetch any file on your PC
Mount/map onedrive as a local drive
How to Configure OneDrive to Sync Only Certain Folders in Windows 10
Windows Power Shell
Windows command prompt
- rmdir foldername /s /q to delete a folder
Return a short name for the current folder
for %I in (.) do echo %~sI
c:\Program Files (x86)>for %I in (.) do echo %~sI c:\Program Files (x86)>echo c:\PROGRA~2 c:\PROGRA~2 c:\Program Files (x86)>cd "C:\Program Files (x86)\ArrayTools\Sample datasets\Pom eroy\Pomeroy -Project\Fortran\ClassPrediction2/" C:\Program Files (x86)\ArrayTools\Sample datasets\Pomeroy\Pomeroy -Project\Fortran\ClassPrediction2> C:\Program Files (x86)\ArrayTools\Sample datasets\Pomeroy\Pomeroy -Project\Fortran\ClassPrediction2>for %I in (.) do echo %~sI C:\Program Files (x86)\ArrayTools\Sample datasets\Pomeroy\Pomeroy -Project\Fortran\ClassPrediction2>echo C:\PROGRA~2\ARR AYT~1\SAMPLE~1\Pomeroy\POMERO~1\Fortran\CLASSP~2 C:\PROGRA~2\ARRAYT~1\SAMPLE~1\Pomeroy\POMERO~1\Fortran\CLASSP~2 # OR starting from any folder and replace the . with the full path of the file/folder c:\>for %I in ("C:\Program Files (x86)\ArrayTools\Sample datasets\Pomeroy\Pomero y -Project\Fortran\ClassPrediction2") do echo %~sI c:\>echo C:\PROGRA~2\ARRAYT~1\SAMPLE~1\Pomeroy\POMERO~1\Fortran\CLASSP~2 C:\PROGRA~2\ARRAYT~1\SAMPLE~1\Pomeroy\POMERO~1\Fortran\CLASSP~2
- how to get DOS path instead of Windows path
- How can I find the short path of a Windows directory/file?
- Using batch parameters from Microsoft.
Split/break a long command in a batch file
Use the caret to break a long line.
copy file1.txt file2.txt
would be written as:
copy.exe file1.txt^ file2.txt
Open control panel
- System properties (including environment variables) - control sysdm.cpl
- See microsoft.com for a complete list.
Open Command Prompt window. You must run it with administrative privilege. Enter the following command.
Privilege manager from BeyondTrust PowerBroker Desktop client
It will create an item (Run w/ Elevated Permissions) on right-click menu.
Qbs from Qt
Onscreen keyboard and Narrator
- Win + C: charm bar
- Win + w: search
- +/-: faster/slower speed
- Alt + arrow keys: skip 10 seconds by forwarding/backwarding
- Ctrl + arrow keys: skip 1 minute
- Ctrl + Alt + arrow keys: skip 5 minutes
- Ctrl + Up/Down: Volume
- M: mute
- F: full screen
- space bar: toggle play/pause
- A: toggle aspect ratio
- When I installed Windows 8.1 from an iso file, 9GB disk space was taken.
- How to Restrict & Monitor Mobile Data Usage on Windows 8.1
Boot from USB on Windows 8
HP stream 8
- http://h30434.www3.hp.com/t5/Windows-Tablets/Stream-7-Booting-from-USB/td-p/4930389 The Stream tablet has a 32-bit UEFI with no legacy support mode so the boot program must support that. Most Linux distros for instance (even 32-bit) only support 64-bit UEFI's and require tweaking to boot on the Stream so that might be your problem with Acronis True Image. Also disable Secure Boot if you haven't already.
- After I disable the secure boot, it comes a bitlocker screen. The 2nd time I reboot HP stream, I was asked to enter the secure code (this has to be retrieved from my microsoft account). See Secure boot on how to turn off Bitlocker.
- UEFI vs Legacy BIOS Booting: What’s the Difference?
- Legacy BIOS is run by option Read Only Memory (ROM’s), which collectively is limited to 64 KB of storage. The option ROMs that legacy systems run will only work if they are compatible with the hardware that is running with it. If you upgrade your hardware, you have to update the option ROMs to make sure every aspect of the booting process is compatible.
- UEFI solved this problem by incorporating drivers into their system in place of option ROM. The drivers have virtually no space limitations and are compatible with upgraded forms of hardware. Drivers are written separately and can be uploaded using a flash drive. The information uploaded onto the system is then processed by UEFI’s programming interface, which configures the data to ensure compatibility.
- UEFI uses C-language. Legacy systems use assembler.
- UEFI boots faster than Legacy systems.
- What Is UEFI, and How Is It Different from BIOS? The traditional BIOS still has serious limitations.
- It can only boot from drives of 2.1 TB or less. UEFI uses the GPT partitioning scheme instead of MBR.
- The BIOS must run in 16-bit processor mode, and only has 1 MB of space to execute in.
- UEFI is packed with other features. It supports Secure Boot, which means the operating system can be checked for validity to ensure no malware has tampered with the boot process.
- What You Need to Know About Using UEFI Instead of the BIOS
- Many computers with UEFI firmware will allow you to enable a legacy BIOS compatibility mode.
- In this mode, the UEFI firmware functions as a standard BIOS instead of UEFI firmware. This can help improve compatibility with older operating systems that weren’t designed with UEFI in mind — Windows 7, for example.
Access UEFI Firmware Setting on Windows 8
UEFI and Ubuntu
- Create A UEFI Bootable Linux Mint USB Drive
- Dual boot Windows 8 and Ubuntu 14.04
- Remove Ubuntu from Ubuntu/Windows Dual boot (UEFI)
How to Check if Your Computer Uses UEFI or BIOS
How to Disable UEFI Secure Boot to Dual Boot Any System
Secure Boot is a feature enabled by UEFI – which replaces the traditional PC BIOS – but Microsoft mandates specific implementations for x86 (Intel) and ARM PCs. Any computer with a Windows 8 logo sticker has Secure Boot enabled.
(From HP support website), Secure Boot Configuration is a new feature of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) in BIOS 8 that helps a computer resist attacks and infection from malware. When your computer was manufactured, UEFI created a list of keys that identify trusted hardware, firmware, and operating system loader code. It also created a list of keys to identify known malware.
To enter the secure boot, follow https://itsfoss.com/disable-uefi-secure-boot-in-windows-8/
If I disable the secure boot and exter/exit the UEFI (not sure it is related to secure boot or entering/exiting UEFI), the BitLocker will ask me to enter the recovery key (48 digits). Very annoying! The bitlocker is related to device encryption. To turn it off, go to PC settings > PC and devices > PC info > Device encryption. Click 'Turn Off'. Google: turn off bitlocker.
How to access a BitLocker-encrypted drive in Linux?
- Microsoft quietly woke up update KB 3035583 from hibernation, and thus began a massive effort to get millions of Windows 7 and 8 users to ditch their existing operating system for a free copy of Windows 10. All they have to do is reserve their Windows 10 upgrade within the first year of the OS’s availability, something they can do from the comforts of their desktop via the Get Windows 10 upgrade prompt.
- Install Windows from a USB drive. Media Creation Tool software
How long can I use Windows 10 without activation?
How to Remove the Activate Windows 10 Watermark
How to Transfer a Windows 10 License to Another Computer
How to Reactivate Windows 10 After a Hardware Change
- How to Create a Local Account While Setting Up Windows 10
- Confirmed: Windows 10 Setup Now Prevents Local Account Creation: Windows 10 version 1903
- How To Set Up A New Windows 10 PC Without A Microsoft Account. Tip: disconnect the internet connection.
- How to Download ISO Files of Older Versions of Windows 10
Automatic log in/sign in
Separate User Accounts
How to Run Portable Versions of Windows
Windows PE (recovery)
Windows 10 Tips
- Uninstall Built-In Windows 10 Apps
- Tips from maximumpc.
- Express settings vs Customize settings when you install Windows 10.
- Product key myth
- How to Revert Your Windows 10 Account to a Local One
- Windows 10 Uses Your Upload Bandwidth to Update Other PCs
- How to Stop Windows 10 From Using So Much Data
- How to Monitor Your Network Usage in Windows 10
- How to Deal With Internet Bandwidth Caps
- Tweak Windows 10 and Fix Its Minor Annoyances
- How to Uninstall and Block Updates and Drivers on Windows 10
- How to Uninstall Windows 10’s Built-in Apps (and How to Reinstall Them)
- Clean installation
- Redirects Windows 10's Bing Web Searches to Google
- Use Google for Cortana web searches (with Firefox or Chrome)
- Make Windows 10 boot faster
- Recovery and roll back
- How to change your default browser in Windows 10
- Disable Windows (auto) update: use metered connection. To set a Wi-Fi network connection as metered: Select Start > Settings > Network & Internet. Select Wi-Fi > Advanced options > Set as metered connection. For this and other methods, see this post from intowindows.com and howtogeek.com.
- Web notes in Edge browser and howtogeek.com
- What is the Windows.old Folder and How Do You Delete It?
- Local disk space 1. 332GB free of 359GB (pro N) 2. 49.7GB free of 57.6GB (home) 3. 53GB free of 74.4GB.
- How Windows 10 Handles Memory Management
- How to make Windows 10 faster
- Gesture on a touchpad
Upgrade to Windows 10 with Windows 7 or 8 + Ubuntu dual boot
How to Change the Windows 10 Update Download Folder Location
Creators Update (version 1703)
- How to download the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update right now 10/18/2017
How Windows 10’s “Builds” Are Different From Service Packs
How can Windows 10 Function With as Little as 32 GB of Disk Space?
From my observation on Windows 10 and Windows 8.1 tablets, the system takes about 12GB space. So my 32GB tablet has 14.6GB free out of 23.5GB for example.
Reject USB drives
- Windows 10, version 1809 and later: Change in default removal policy for external storage media
- Microsoft changes how Windows 10 disconnects USB storage devices
Format USB drives
- Use SD Formatter (Windows and Mac) to format a flash drive. The drive will be formatted to the FAT format.
- Right click the drive letter in File Explorer. Select Format > exFAT and click OK.
- diskpart Windows (built-in command) drive recovery.
How to Format a Write Protected USB Flash Drive
Command prompt keyboard shortcuts
Bash Shell & Ubuntu Linux
- Windows 10 Creators Update set to be released on April 2017
- You MUST be running Windows Build 14316 or higher (e.g. Anniversary Update).
- You MUST be running 64 bit Windows 10 (Home, Professional editions, ...)
- Official blogs:
- The iso file name is <Win10_1607_English_x64.iso> (4.1GB) as of 1/4/2017. Note that the iso file is different from what I downloaded last time (Nov 2016) which is only 3.4GB.
- To copy a text: use mouse's left button to select lines and hit the 'Enter' key. To paste the clipboard to another bash shell, use mouse's right button.
- Check whether we are in Windows 10's Ubuntu or not: grep Microsoft /proc/version. See neofetch.
- How to Get Colored Window Title Bars on Windows 10 (Instead of White)
- Check whether Windows 10 is activated or not: Settings -> Update & security -> Activation
- To change the directory color (default LS_COLORS di value 01;34 as normal Ubuntu OS). See How do I change the color for directories with ls in the console?
# Change the color of directories from blue to cyan that was used to represent symbolic link files/directories in regular Ubuntu OS export LS_COLORS=$LS_COLORS:'di=1;36:'
- Official bug report and other links https://github.com/Microsoft/BashOnWindows
- How to get the Windows 10 Anniversary Update (version 1607); it does not work in my case. Download the Media Creation Tools from Microsoft method works in my case.
- How to Find Out Which Build and Version of Windows 10 You Have
- Installation Guide from msdn.microsoft.com.
- How to Install and Use the Linux Bash Shell on Windows 10 Note the title bar color is white (not blue) in my cases.
- How to Uninstall (or Reinstall) Windows 10’s Ubuntu Bash Shell
- How to Access Your Ubuntu Bash Files in Windows (and Your Windows System Drive in Bash)
- Windows Subsystem for Linux update will let you access Linux file from Windows, Windows 10 Will Finally Offer Easy Access to Linux Files 2019
- How to Change Your User Account in Windows 10’s Ubuntu Bash Shell
- How to Run Graphical Linux Desktop Applications from Windows 10’s Bash Shell. And What is DISPLAY=:0?
- Download and install Xming X Server: <Xming-6-9-0-31-setup.exe> (2MB) and <Xming-fonts-7-7-0-10-setup.exe> (32MB).
# assuming we have already run xming export DISPLAY=:0
- Run Ubuntu (or any) Desktop Environment in WSL
- How to run the native Ubuntu desktop on Windows 10. Especially it discusses the socket support and D-bus issue on WSL)
- Use XcXsrv instead of Xming to avoid an error.
- If we have installed Unity Ubuntu, we can start it by typing compiz. If we have installed xfce4 Ubuntu, we start it by typing xfce4-session or startxfce4. Note that unity does not respond to keyboard and mouse but xfce4 has a good response.
- Use Alt+Tab to switch between Ubuntu desktop and Bash Shell. To exit Xfce4 just log out.
- To install other desktop environments
sudo apt-get install xfce4 # standard XFCE desktop environment sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop # Xubuntu’s customized XFCE desktop environment
- Error message when I run sudo: unable to resolve host (DESKTOP-xxxxxxx). Edit /etc/hosts and append your host name (check </etc/hostname>) to the first line 127.0.0.1 localhost (space separated). For example, the first line looks like
127.0.0.1 localhost DESKTOP-TC9HSRG
- How to Run Windows Programs from Windows 10’s Bash Shell
- How to Run Linux Commands From Outside the Bash Shell on Windows 10
- Windows file system is available in /mnt/ directory. For example, the C: drive is in /mnt/c.
- Ubuntu file system in Windows: C:\Users\Username\AppData\Local\Lxss\rootfs. See this post.
- Ubuntu file system is available in Windows user account's Application Data folder (hidden).
- How to Update the Windows Bash Shell to Ubuntu 16.04 which is available only in Windows 10's Creators Update. While you can go out of your way to forcibly upgrade the Ubuntu shell to 16.04 on Windows 10’s Anniversary Update, it’s not a good idea. The underlying Windows Subsystem for Linux doesn’t fully support Ubuntu 16.04 in the Anniversary Update, so some things just won’t work properly.
- Useful apt-get commands
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install packagename sudo apt-get remove packagename sudo apt-cache search word sudo apt-get upgrade # download and install the latest versions of your installed packaes
- To quickly launch a program, execute a command, or run a script, you don't need to launch the Bash environment first. You can use bash -c to directly execute a Linux command. Bash will simply run the command and then qit.
bash -c "vi"
- You can use lxrun command to reinstall the Ubuntu environment and get a fresh Linux slate.
lxrun /uninstall /full
To install the Ubuntu, use either (the command will ask you a new username/password)
or ("root" is the default username without a password)
lxrun /install /y
- Oracle Java cannot be installed directly through PPA method. However, we can download the tarball and extract the files into somewhere. See here. In my testing of running SAMtools, I extract the tarball to /usr/java. Then I modify .bashrc to include 'export PATH=$PATH:/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_112'. After that, BRB-SeqTools works fine.
- Note that the htop output shows 50% CPU are used for each core. That does not match with what the 'Task Manager' gave (2% used). See this posts.
- Mounting drives. For example I assign Z: drive for the shared folder. But the Z: drive does not appear under /mnt directory.
- Limitations (from the Anniversary Update):
- There is no way to actually launch a Windows program or run a Windows command from within a Bash script or the Bash shell.
- This won’t work with server software.
- It’s intended for developers who want to run Linux command-line utilities on Windows.
- Mount virtualbox shared folder in Ubuntu
- Interop between Windows and Bash (Build 14951)
- ISO download and Announcement.
- Build 14965
- Build 14986
- Build 15002 Ctrl-C in a Bash session no longer works.
- Build 15007
- Build 15063 Creators Update
- Build 16241 Ubuntu can be downloaded from Windows Store
- Build 16251 微軟Windows 10預覽版可連結手機，將瀏覽文件、網頁、郵件傳送到PC, Windows Subsystem for Linux No Longer Beta, Stable for Everyone
- If we do not log into the Microsoft account, the desktop wallpaper will be kept to the default.
- If we log into the Microsoft account, the desktop wallpaper will be changed but still cannot be modified by users.
openSUSE or others
Removable drives and network drives
- How To: Spring Cleaning for Your Drives by maximumpc.com.
How to Find Out Why Your Windows PC Crashed or Froze
http://www.howtogeek.com/222730/how-to-find-out-why-your-windows-pc-crashed-or-froze/. The article mentions two tools.
- Reliability monitor (built-in)
- Event viewer(built-in)
- BlueScreenView (NirSoft)
Securely transfer files to Linux on Windows command line
PuTTy & PuttyND
Use psftp or pscp with a script.
PuttyND gives a chrome style with multiple tabs for Putty Suite.
scp command built in Windows 10
Open a command line window or PowerShell window. Tested on Windows 10 20H2.
scp -r [email protected]:Documents/Dirname Documents\Project
Use winscp with script or in command line
C:\Program Files\WinSCP\winscp.exe" /console /script=YOUR_SCRIPT_FILENAME
Example from http://winscp.net/eng/docs/scripting#example
# Automatically abort script on errors option batch abort # Disable overwrite confirmations that conflict with the previous option confirm off # Connect using a password # open sftp://user:[email protected] # Connect open sftp://[email protected] # Change remote directory cd /home/user # Force binary mode transfer option transfer binary # Download file to the local directory d:\ get examplefile.txt d:\ # Disconnect close # Connect as a different user open [email protected] # Change the remote directory cd /home/user2 # Upload the file to current working directory put d:\examplefile.txt # Disconnect close # Exit WinSCP exit
See http://wiki.vpslink.com/Automate_Backup_Retrieval_with_WinSCP#Test_WinSCP_Backup_Script for use winscp with Windows scheduler.
winscp and rsync
Go to Configuration > Window > Colours. Select from the list that contains the blue color. Click the 'Modify' button.
Go to Configuration > Window > Translation. Choose 'Use font encoding' or 'UTF-8' in "Remote character set".
Putty with tabs
- Putty nd Works well
- MTPuTTY/Multi-Tabbed Putty
Has a problem with cursor. Need to specify the location of the PuTTy program. Note that you can split the screen by docking any of the windows on top of MTPuTTY.
Increase font size with keyboard shortcut
Ctrl + mouse wheel does not work!
Comparison of ssh client
MobaXterm: Enhanced terminal for Windows with X11 server, tabbed SSH client, network tools and much more.
Find public IP address
Create a VB script text file "ip.cbs" with a content like
Option Explicit Dim http : Set http = CreateObject( "MSXML2.ServerXmlHttp" ) http.Open "GET", "http://icanhazip.com", False http.Send Wscript.Echo http.responseText 'or do whatever you want with it Set http = Nothing
Open a command line and run
The output will look like
C:\Users\mli>cscript ip.vbs Microsoft (R) Windows Script Host Version 5.7 Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 2601:a:3780:5b:b856:6a09:3ea3:5e26
- On windows, open a command prompt. Type 'ipconfig' and look at IPv4 Address. But 'ipconfig' cannot show only one adapter. Another choice is netsh
x <- shell('netsh interface ip show addresses "Local Area Connection"', intern = T) y <- strsplit(x[grep("IP Address", x)], " ")[] y[length(y)] #  "xxx.xx.xx.xxx"
PATH copy copy
What is the Equivalent of the (Linux) bin Directory in Windows?
System wide: the \Windows\System32 directory, or PATH
Personal: account’s PATH environment. For example, create the directory in your own profile (%USERPROFILE%\bin) and add it to your account’s PATH environment variable.
PATH environment variable
In R, by using strsplit() and shell() functions we can quickly get the information of the PATH environment variable.
> x = shell("PATH", int = TRUE) > strsplit(x, ";") []  "PATH=C:\\Program Files (x86)\\VNI\\imsl\\fnl600\\Intel64\\lib"  "C:\\Program files\\MPICH2\\bin"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\VNI\\imsl\\fnl600\\IA64\\lib"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\VNI\\imsl\\fnl600\\IA32\\lib"  "C:\\Program files\\MPICH2\\bin"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\intel64\\mkl"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\ia32\\mkl"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\intel64\\mpirt"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\intel64\\compiler"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\ia32\\mpirt"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\redist\\ia32\\compiler"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Intel\\ComposerXE-2011\\compiler\\lib"  "C:\\Windows\\system32"  "C:\\Windows"  "C:\\Windows\\System32\\Wbem"  "C:\\Windows\\System32\\WindowsPowerShell\\v1.0\\"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\QuickTime\\QTSystem\\"  "C:\\Program Files\\cvsnt"  "C:\\Program Files\\ActivIdentity\\ActivClient\\"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\ActivIdentity\\ActivClient\\"  "C:\\Program Files\\TortoiseSVN\\bin"  "C:\\graphviz\\i386\\bin"  "C:\\graphviz\\x64\\bin"  "C:\\gtk\\bin"  "C:\\gtksourceview\\bin"  "C:\\libxml2\\bin"  "C:\\Users\\USERNAME\\Downloads\\binary"  "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Miktex\\miktex\\bin\\"  "C:\\Pandoc\\bin"
An open source program to edit PATH variable is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pathtool/
On my computer, I need to open a Windows prompt with admin privilege and then type 'sysdm.cpl' in order to change the PATH variable.
Difference of "P" and "U" when running an update on WinCVS.
It means "Patched", which in effect is exactly the same as "Updated". The only difference is that the server did not send the complete file but only a diff (aka patch).
Notepad++ (text editor)
Go to Settings->Preferences -> Print. Check 'Print line number' and check 'Black on white' instead of no background color.
Line wrap works too. About 62 lines per page in my case. Cannot change font size though.
Other editors like Sublime and Atom do not even have the print function.
But sometimes it shows a message 'Before you can print, you need to select a printer. If you need to install a printer, either double-click the Add Printer icon or click the Find Printer... button located on the General tab of this dialog.':(( In this case, I just need to re-start notepad++.
How to increase font size? Just hold Ctrl and use scroll wheel. See here. It even save the status when you restart Notepad++.
Setting > Style Configurator > Select theme dropdown list > Zenburn.
If we download other themes from internet, those themes do not have a support for R languages so the syntax highlight will be lost.
And for convenience, we can change the default language to R in Notepad++'s Settings.
? > Set Updater Proxy.
See above for the printing problem on my Win 7.
Does not support to print line numbers
- Check the option of print line numbers.
- Uncheck the option of syntax highlight.
- Adjust font size used in printing.
On Windows 10, the print function does not work well though the print preview looks good.
No option to support print line numbers
Line printing works. But some characters are lost in long lines.
No way to print line numbers.
When printing line numbers, it cannot support line wrapping. So a long line becomes several lines (line numbers).
Image and Photo Editors
Visual Studio 2010
- Create simple form using VS C++ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8E4C0zbIHA
Visual Studio 2013
Visual Studio 2015
Download offline version http://stackoverflow.com/questions/30070584/how-to-install-vs2015-community-edition-offline
For something we cannot find a good Windows version of program; for example, cvs client. See my notes in Linux page.
Use desktop client like minitube which can eliminate the ads and allows downloading videos.
Powerful usage of VLC
Toggle mute sound
- free utility called nircmd http://www.nirsoft.net/utils/nircmd.zip
- create a shortcut: "C:\Michal\Code\Mute Sounds\nircmd.exe" mutesysvolume 2
- set up shortcut key by right click the shortcut and choose property
Record Skype calls
Calibrate your speaker
Mind mapping software
- Free mind
- Mindmap (web based)
- MindMup (web based). It can export to Freemind .nm format. No registration is required.
@echo off For /f "tokens=2-4 delims=/ " %%a in ('date /t') do (set mydate=%%c-%%a-%%b) For /f "tokens=1-2 delims=/:" %%a in ("%TIME%") do (set mytime=%%a%%b) echo %mydate%_%mytime%
Then save it as <datetime.bat> and run
C:\Program Files\R>c:\users\brb\Desktop\datetime.bat 2015-09-16_ 908
@echo off echo %time% < nul cmd /c %1 echo %time% < nul
Then run your program as an argument to this script...
and for arguments...
timer "myprogram.exe -sw1 -sw2"
Examine your system’s energy efficiency: powercfg
Reconnect to the internet with a new IP address: ipconfig
'C:\Program' is not recognized as an internal or external command, operable program or batch file
cmder: Portable console emulator for Windows (git, awk, cp, curl, find, gawk, ...)
How to Change the Primary Email Address for Your Microsoft Account
8 Ways to Email Large Attachments
Reference management software
When we find an article in PubMed, we can choose "Send to" and select "Citation manager" and then click the "Create File" button to download the reference. After the citation file is downloaded (*.nbib, an ASCII format), we can double click it to open the file in EndNote. The reference will be inserted into our library file (e.g. ~/Documents/My EndNote Library.enl). We can delete the *.nbib file now.
Now in Word click "EndNote X8" on the menu. It will bring up a Ribbon at the top. Before we click "Insert Citation" button, change the Style from its default 'Annotated' to say "APA 6th". The default 'Annotated' style will insert the abstract in the reference area. After clicking "Insert Citation", we can enter a keyword and if the match is found, we can insert it to our Word document. We can also use "Edit and manage citations" to remove citations.
- supported by scholar.google.com
- supported by scholar.google.com
https://www.itefix.net/content/cwrsync-free-edition. Just unzip.
Pick a light weight linux distribution.
rsync from Rtools
C:\Program Files\R>where rsync C:\Rtools\bin\rsync.exe
Got an error (tried 3.2 and 3.3)
rsync: Failed to exec ssh: No such file or directory (2) rsync error: error in IPC code (code 14) at /home/lapo/package/rsync-3.0.9-1/src/rsync-3.0.9/pipe.c(84) [Receiver=3.0.9] rsync: connection unexpectedly closed (0 bytes received so far) [Receiver] rsync error: error in rsync protocol data stream (code 12) at /home/lapo/package/rsync-3.0.9-1/src/rsync-3.0.9/io.c(605) [Receiver=3.0.9]
rsync from cygwin
Got a permission error when the target is a network drive.
Got an error: connection unexpectedly closed.
Windows sync toy
For some reason, it does not find the missing files so it does not copy files from source to target.
Another bad thing is there is no way to uninstall it.
For some reason, I cannot download it successfully. If I manually copy it from a linux machine to windows, it just get deleted. Probably there is a security reason.
I download Windows binary version. However, it does not work. It depends on GTK but it still complain it cannot find libgtk-win32-2-0.0.dll even I downloaded/installed/change PATH variable.
http://sourceforge.net/projects/directorysync/?source=recommended (NO installer is there)
View all steps from instructables
Just add ?ALLSTEPS after the url's forward slash. See here
How to Set Up Your Own Home VPN Server
How to See If Your VPN Is Leaking Your Personal Information
How to Auto-Connect to a VPN for Specific Apps in Windows 10
Group by date
Keep tabs open from last session
Settings > Folder Tabs > Tab Management tab
- uncheck the box "Close all not locked tabs when the program ends."
- check the box "Keep current tabs if open layout"
7zip to open zip files
- http://www.forum.freecommander.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=5142. Settings > Archiver plugins. Unfortunately I did not find a source to download the plugin.
Back up to external drive or another computer
Turn off Ipod nano 4th generation completely
The steps are
- Center + Menu
- Center + Left
- Sleep, Deep sleep
Hide a Windows program
Especially the RBTray program works well. When it was launched, we can use 'right click' on any program's minimize button to minimize it to the tray. To exit the program, just right click on any tray icon created by RBTray and click Exit RBTray in the popup menu. Or run RBTray.exe with the --exit parameter.
Windows XP mode in Windows 7
Printing will truncate the top and bottom. So when we want to print, switch to Window's Paint program.
Backups vs. Redundancy: What’s the Difference?
This howtogeek.com guide tells how to record you screen on different platforms (windows/mac/linux/android/ios).
Adobe Illustrator vs. Photoshop
- Tutorial basic
- List of tools shown on the left hand side.
- Tutorial from youtube (tutor4u)
- Transparent text
- Select the arrow key when we want to change an object property (eg enlarge).
- The straight line tool is located two above the Text tool. When we draw a line, we can use ENTER key to stop continuation.
- When we want to enlarge an object, we want to hold the CTRL key so the size will be changed proportionally.
- Keyboard shortcut. For example, Ctrl+d to duplicate selection.
- KeepNote: cross platform (pro: tab for different notebooks, export to HTML)
- Notebook is saved in a folder format (Folder name = notebook name)
- CherryTree: cross platform (pro: still under development, one file only, recent documents)
- File extension is .ctd
- I use version 0.28.5 for ATtasks\Doc\RServe, GSE6861 Projects
- Zim: cross platform
Check web change
- https://www.changedetection.com/ as mentioned by For those web sites without RSS feed
- Page Monitor chrome extension (we can 'Pick' part of a page)
- http://page2rss.com/ (convert page to RSS)
Screenshot of a big webpage
Screengrab add-on for Firefox
ReminderFox is an add-on for Firefox
Tile of webpages
TileView is an add-on for Firefox
Download Bing wallpaper
Windows Virtual Machine download
https://developer.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-edge/tools/vms/. These virtual machines expire after 90 days. Recommend setting a snapshot when you first install the virtual machine which you can roll back to later. The password to your VM is "Passw0rd!"
The guest machine seems to be working out of box. Desktop zoom in and copy/paste work.
Specs: 4GB memory, 40GB virtual storage.
Audio out recorder
Total Recorder. The standard version ($18) already allows to record by schedule. The Professional version (+$18) allows to capture streaming audio directly without opening another application.
Windows Movie Media
I got a message Another program is preventing Windows Essentials from installing when I was installing Windows Essentials 2012 on Windows 7 Enterprise w/ Service Pack 1.
Camstudio works in Virtualbox guest machine too while Screencasting 101 gives me an error. Also the Virtualbox's built-in video capture function does not create videos correctly (I only got a blank/green screen and the video's length is wrong).
Make sure to install Camstudio lossless codec too.
- Region -> Fix region 1024*720 (screen will create 4 corners when you hit the record button or F8)
- Options -> Video. Camstudio lossless Codec v1.5.
- Options -> Cursor. Highlight cursor.
- Options -> Audio.
- Options -> Program Options -> Keyboard shortcut (F8=record, F9=Stop)
- Toolbar icon -> 6th one is to toggle flv, avi, mp4. Avi is good.
Video Editing Tools
- 4 Free Video Editing Tools: VSDC (Windows free/pro) and Shotcut (cross-platform)
- The best video editing software (Sep 2017)
- The Best Video Editing Software for Beginners May 2019
VideoPad Video Editor
Got blue screens when I import video files (tested on Windows 7 VM, PD v12).
- Text annotation is easy and more variable
- Audio fade out does not work. Alternatively we can use Audicity to fix this problem.
- Export video is very slow (at least on the Free version). 1 minute video takes 1 minute to export. So it does not make sense if we just want to make a small adjustment.
- Text annotation is too simple to be useful
- Free Video Cutter LosslessCut Adds Multiple Cut Points, Video Merging Feature
cd "YourDirectoryContainingSymLink" mklink -d "Foldername" "RealPathToFolderName"
- Complete Guide to Symbolic Links (symlinks) on Windows or Linux where Link Shell Extension was used.
Default location of TurboTax and HRBlock
Documents\TurboTax with a file ext name like .tax2014.
Documents\HRBlock with a file ext name like .T14.
Storage/disk space problem on Windows tablet
- http://www.bit-tech.net/news/bits/2014/04/11/wimboot/1 WIMBoot
MBR vs GPT
Convert Fat32 file system to NTFS
It is know Fat32 has a file size limit of 4GB. That means it is impossible to use Fat32 partition to transfer a >4GB virtual machine file (ova) to a fat32 USB drive.
The ntfs partition created by Gparted program may not be recognized by Windows OS. So if a drive has been used/partitioned in Linux machines, it is recommended to keep using Gparted to partition the drive to FAT32 first and then bring the drive to Windows OS for ntfs conversion/re-partition.
To convert a fat32 partition to NTFS, run the following in the command line prompt (or type help convert to get help).
convert <drive_letter>: /fs:ntfs
Use HP USB Disk storage format tool (96KB) <HPUSBDisk.exe>. The USB drive still needs to be assigned to a drive letter first.
It provides trustworthy temperature readings.
CPU fan control
Paper size: A4 vs US letter
- A4 8.26 x 11.69
- US Letter 8.50 x 11.00
Right click the printer icon -> Printer properties (not Properties) -> Ports. Widen the first column (Port). The IP address is shown there.
The old printer is not shown as an option from Brother. I need to click the 'Windows Update' button to update all lists.
Hard drive monitor/benchmark tools
Has an advantage about the size than the internal drive. For example, my Dell Precision 3500 can support up to 2TB.
See the internal link Linux -> GParted.
Hard disk monitor tools
- HWMonitor (freeware) from CPUID. Need to be run as admin; otherwise it only shows brief info about CPU. It does show temperature from cpu, memory, internal hdd and graphical card. Does not include External hdd.
- SpeedFan (freeware) from Almico.com. This required an installation. It will be installed under C:\Program Files (x86)\SpeedFan. This can detect my ext 4TB hdd (WD4003FZEX). It shows the temperature 40C for this ext hdd (under the Readings tab or more details under the S.M.A.R.T. tab). My other 2 int hdd temperature is 34C and 40C currently.
- Crystal Disk Info (freeware). Support USB connection and RAID. This looks very good too and it only focuses on HDD/SSD. It has both installer & portable versions. Explanation of the interface. The source code is on afterdawn.com. Give Your Hard Drive a Check-Up from maximumpc.com. The best and fastest USB3 Flash Drives of 2016, comparison, benchmark.
- smartmontools. Windows can run it through cygwin.
- HMonitor (shareware).
The hdd temperature is OK in the range of 25C to 46C. See http://www.buildcomputers.net/hdd-temperature.html
Hard disk space monitor
Fast, lightweight, advanced system information tool for your PC. It also displays the temperature from CPU, MOBO, fan speed, et al.
Use WinPatrol to Monitor Your Windows PC for Changes
Wireless network watcher
- WebEx Below is a screenshot when the camera is off and microphone is muted.
- To increase the screen and hide unnecessary windows, click "Floating Panel View (The default is "Video Strip View" and the 2nd option is "Side by side View") and then a small reverse triangle to "Hide Video View".
- Full-Screen Content Sharing Views in Cisco Webex Meetings and Cisco Webex Events
- GoToWebinar which supports Linux for video part.
Intel Boot Agent GE
Go to http://support.logitech.com/en_us/product/wireless-mouse-m510 and download 64-bit full installer (not smart installer) of SetPoint.
SetPoint software can be used to re-program forward and backward buttons on the mouse. For example, I can set the forward as 'j' and backward as 'k' for feedly.com website.
Amazon digital credit balance
http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html/?docId=1000811661#gc or https://www.amazon.com/norushcredits which gives expiration dates on credits.
Note that the credit has a short expire date. So go to the email and search "Your Amazon.com Promotional Credit". Good luck keeping track of them.
Amazon reward points
Amazon two factor authentification
Watch web videos without flash
Firefox Developer Edition for private browsing
How to Identify a Song on Any Smartphone, PC, or Tablet
Similar to Conky in Linux.
It uses Alt+Space to launch anything.
Note that it has Linux (binary and source) and Mac versions too.
I downloaded the portable version (without the installer) from More Downloads >> link.
Note that xampp has to be extracted to the top level directory such as C:\.
When I start the Apache server, Windows' firewall will pop up. Since I am not the system admin, I can only click the 'Cancel' button.
The virtual machine can use the host's IP to get an access to the Apache web site. But the other computer cannot.
How to Run Any Program as a Background Service in Windows from howtogeek.com. Plex is used as an example.
View Running Processes
Console Window Host
Google account permission for webs, apps and devices
Go to account settings -> Sign in and security -> Connected apps and sites.
How to Play Your Favorite NES, SNES, and Other Retro Games
How to delete Yahoo account
It’s Time to Leave Yahoo: How to Quit and Move to Gmail Right Now
How to delete Gmail or Google account
How to Import and Manage Multiple Email Accounts in Gmail
How to Download Wikipedia for Offline, At-Your-Fingertips Reading
The Best Places to Find Free Audiobooks (Legally)
ActivClient v6.2 program